Volume 8, Issue 6 p. 339-355


Gordon S. Fulcher

Gordon S. Fulcher

Corning Glass Works Corning, N. Y.

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First published: June 1925
Citations: 3,479

Recd. March 20. 1925.


Viscosity of Simple Soda-Silicate 500° to 1400°C

Comparison of the results given by English with those of Washburn, Shelton and Libman, indicates a discrepancy in the absolute values of log10 viscosity amounting to 0.6, those of Washburn et al., being relatively too high. If correction for this is made, the isothermal curves of log10 viscosity as a function of soda content are smooth up to 50% Na2O, showing no inflection. The observations as a function of temperature T are all represented within accidental error by an equation of the type


where all three constants vary regularly with the composition.

Change of Viscosity of Glass (6SiO2, 2Na2O) due to Molecular Substitution of CaO, MgO and Al2O3 for Na2O

The effect is clearly brought out by plotting (from the results of English) the change of log10η due to the substitution as a function of temperature. The curves each show a sharp bend at a temperature between 840° and 1050°C, which is designated the aggregation temperature Ta. If we divide these curves by the corresponding percentage substituted, we get curves for each oxide which are straight and parallel below the aggregation temperatures, the slopes (increase of change of log10η per 100°C) being −0.056 (CaO), −0.055 (MgO), −0.018 (A12O3) per per cent oxide substituted. For substitution of 1/2 molecule the slopes are −0.325 (CaO), −0.23 (MgO) and −0.18 (Al2O3) per 100°. At the aggregation temperature the change of log10η per per cent is a minimum, 0.03 to 0.06 for CaO, 0.12 for MgO, 0.07 for Al2O3.

Evidence of Aggregation in Glasses, from viscosity Measurements

The sharp bends in the plots of change of log10η due to substitution of an oxide for Na2O, suggest the beginning of molecular aggregation at these temperatures. These aggregation temperatures are close to the devitrification temperatures, but the effect on the viscosity curves cannot be due to actual devitrification since it does not change with time. Taking the aggregation temperatures as equal to devitrification temperatures, additional isotherms are roughly sketched into the equilibrium triangle of the system Na2O-CaO-SiO2.

Change of Viscosity of Glass (4SiO2, 2Na2O) due to of Substitution of B2O3 for SiO2

The change of log10η (from the results of English) is plotted as a function of temperature, and also the change of log10η per per cent B2O3. The curves are more complex than for the substitution for Na2O.